Poa bulbosa L. subsp.vivipara

C. & S. Europe, Transcaucasia, N.W. Iran. Turkish specimens are rarely found with proliferous spikelets; most material under var. vivipara Koeler proved to belong to P. bulbosa. Being smaller than subsp. alpina of northern Europe, with compact ovoid panicles, they are sometimes named var. brevifolia sensu Boiss. non Gaudin. Occasional luxuriant specimens (e.g. C5 Adana: Kar-santi, Hizar Gediği, 1750 m, Yurdakulol 14!) resemble P. badensis Haenke ex Willd. (C. Europe, N. Balkans) in being taller, with more numerous spikelets. Distribution of species: Europe, temperate Asia, N. America.

P. bulbosa L., Sp. Pl. 70 (1753). Syn: P. sinaica Steudel, Syn. Pl. Glum. 1:256 (1854); P. montana Bal. in Bull. Soc. Bot. Fr. 21:17 (1874) non All.
(1789); P. eigii Feinbrun in Kew Bull. 1940:280, t. 7 f. 1 & 3 (1940)! Ic: Hubbard, Grasses ed. 2:170 (1968); Rech. fil., Fl. Iranica 70: t. 11 (1970), as P. sinaica.
Perennial, densely caespitose; basal sheaths swollen, forming a bulb. Stems (9-)20-55 cm, smooth, terete, leafy mainly at base. Ligules 1-2 mm, acute to rounded, hyaline. Leaf blades 0.5-1.5 mm broad, ± tightly involute. Panicle (2-)2.5-7 cm, ± compact (less so if proliferous), ovoid; branches scabrid, 2-4 at lowest nodes. Spikelets often proliferous, 6-20 cm when so, otherwise 3.5-5 (-7.5) mm. Glumes ovate, subequal. Lemma hairy on keel and marginal veins, ± lanate or not at base. Palea keels scabrid. Anthers 1.4-1.6 mm. Fl. 5-7. Steppe, dry grassland, rocky slopes, macchie, phrygana, cliffs, s.I.-3000 m.
Described from France (Hb. Linn. 87/57! 58! 59!).
Throughout Turkey; Islands. A1 (E) Edirne: 3 km from Ipsala to Keşan, A. Baytop (ISTE 16516)! A1(A) Çanakkale: Erenköy, Sint. 1883:332! A2(E) Istanbul: Cendere, 12 iv 1895, Nemetz! A2(A) Istanbul: Antigoni (Burgaz Ada), Wimmer 168! A3 Bilecik: 2 km S. of Bilecik station, 400 m, D. 42078! A4 Kastamonu: Ilgaz Da., 1740 m, Edmondson 592! A5 Kastamonu: Tosya, Sint. 1892:3919! A6 Samsun: Samsun to Kavak, 600 m, A. Baytop (ISTE 9078)! A7 Gümüşane: Aktaş, Sint. 1894:5526b! A8 Rize: Kabakçor, Bal. (type of P. montana). Çoruh: 26 km E. of Demirkent, Sorger 81-81-45! A9 Kars: 10 km S. of Sarikamiş, 2200 m, Sorger 81-48-8! Bl Izmir: Kemalpaşa Da., 31 v 1970, Engstrad! B2 Izmir: Boz Da., 1100-1500m, Sorger 68-16-84! B3 Konya: Akşehir to Yalvaç, 1600 m, A. Baytop (ISTE 29298)! B4 Ankara: Ankara, Bornm. 1892:3124! B5 Kayseri: Erciyas Da., 2150 m, Sorger 64-25-17! B6 Yozgat: Yildizeli to Akdağmadeni, 1500 m, Coode & Jones 2013! B7 Erzincan: 11 km N.W. of Refahiye, 1540 m, M. Zohary 8773! B8 Erzurum: 53 km N. of Hinis, 1750 m, 5 vii 1963, M. Zohary! B9 Van: Çatak, Tirsin Y., T. Baytop (ISTE 45321)! B10 Ağri: 3 km E. of Doğubayazit, 1750 m, D. 43930! Cl Muğla: Ortakent to Dağbelen, 200 m, Sorger & Kit-Tan 84-11-10 (luxuriant non-proliferous specimen)! C2 Denizli: Pamukkale, 400 m, Ehrend. 62-1/29-28! C3 Isparta: Çiçek Da., 1300-1600 m, Sorger 67-5-111! C4 Konya: nr Konya, Birand & M. Zohary 3502! C5 Adana: d. Karsanti, Tora-san Da., 2090 m, Yurdakulol 1437! C6 Urfa: 5 km N.E. of Halfeti, 650 m, Sorger 80-14-49! C7 .Adiyaman: Nemrut Da., v 1970, Wannenmacher! C8 Mardin: Mardin, Sint. 1888:1496! C9 Siirt: above Şirnak, 1400-1500 m, D. 42622! C10 Hakkari: Sat Da., 2900-3000 m, D. 45699! Is: Lesvos, mt. Olympos at Ayiassos, 400-700 m, Rech. 5648! Ikaria, mt. Atheras, Runem. & Snog. 12445! Samos, Kalithea to Kerkis, 400 m, 19 iii 1979, Jarl& Nilsson! Kalimnos, Fors.-Maj. 519; Kos, mt. Dikeos, 400 m, Renvoize 2704! Rodhos, mt. Attairo, Rech. 7361.
W., C. & S. Europe, N. Africa, S.W. & C. Asia;introduced into N. America. An extremely polymorphic species, partly on account of its plastic response to edaphic factors and partly because of its agamospermous, vegetative mode of reproduction and dispersal. P. sinaica is sometimes treated as a distinct species; Bor (Fl. Iraq 9:118, 1968) indicates that only non-proliferous specimens can be segregated with any certainty. As such specimens are rare in Turkey, this separation is impractical and P. sinaica is here regarded as merely one of a number of forms of a polymorphic P. bulbosa.
An aberrant variant was collected from B8 Bitlis: Kambos Da. above Hur-muz, 2135 m, D. 23459 (K!) in which the normal inflorescence is absent. In its place is a succession of cauline leaves inserted at intervals of c. 2 cm (diminishing upwards), each of which subtends a proliferous bulbil in its axil.